Innovative thin film metallic deposed by PVD sputtering

Sputtering Deposition Sputtering is a commonly used physical vapor deposition process that involves the ejection of neutral atoms from the target or source to the substrate by momentum exchange process performed by the impingement of energetic ions.



In sputtering , the entire surface of the target is the source, unlike evaporation process where a point (where electron beam hits) on the target is the source . The surface source implies a higher coverage area during deposition as compared to other evaporation techniques



The deposition process in sputtering is not purely ballistic. In sputtering the evaporants bombard the substrate surface, rearrange themselves and then condense on the substrate. Higher kinetic energy of the sputtered particles (~ tens of eV) giving rise to better adhesion to the substrate.



Some of the main advantages of sputtering as a thin film deposi tion technique are due to high kinetic energy of the sputtered atoms, causing their re - distribution on the substrate, leading to (a) high uniformity, density and interface roughness of the deposited film (b) deposition over large surface area



By incorporating target cooling provision in sputtering, higher melting point elements can be deposited. With a better understanding of the sputtering processes, it has become one of the versatile methods for preparing high quality thin solid films of any material.



Sputtering sources often employ magnetrons that utilize strong magnetic ) ( B fields to confine charged plasma particles close to the surface of the sputter target in order to increase the sputter yield. In a magnetic field, electrons follow helical paths around magnetic field lines. This causes an increase in the effective path le ngth, causing more ionizing collisions with gaseous neutrals near the target surface.



Sputtering involves many parameters that affect the deposition process such as: base vacuum, sputter gas pressure during deposition (here argon), sputter power, target and substrate temperature etc. The microstructure of the film or its quality which incl udes surface roughness, adhesion, impurity, density of the film produced by sputtering process is a result of interplay of the above parameters

Nickel allergy and nickel sensitivity

Nickel allergy and nickel sensitivity affects millions of people causing skin irritation and rashes. There is no cure for nickel allergy, but thankfully it can be successfully managed by avoiding skin contact with products that contain nickel such as jewelry, belts and other metal hardware on clothing or accessories. Nickel is a common additive to many metals including gold. Even many nickel-free products often contain nickel in the base metal but are plated with a nickel-free alloy, which wears down overtime and exposes you to nickel. It is important for people who are sensitive to nickel to buy 100% nickel-free products to guarantee no irritations or rashes.


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